Monday, 8 February 2016

Write Up: PRIMER 1.0.1 (chp. 3)

PRIMER is a vulnerable VM developed by Arne Rick featured on Vulnhub. It can be found hereIf you intend to complete this VM yourself then this write up will spoil it for you. So I say in bold and caps - SPOILERS!

CHAPTER 3: ["[^"\r\n]*"]

This chapter has probably taught me the biggest lesson so far.. don't get carried away. I have spent hours on this chapter, when in fact, its probably the easiest and most simple chapter yet. Instead of hiding my mistake, there might be some comedy valuable learning opportunities in sharing it.

So from the beginning.. I was greeted again by the now expected block of text and little else. This section of the story seemed to offer some hints to the solution. I fell for it hook line and sinker!

As I read the text, the following line stuck out to me ".. slowly d[i]sintegrating with lightspeed, a thousand years each nano second". This sentence appeared to be the only real candidate for a hint in the text, so I went with it...

I looked at the headers. I noticed that (unlike previous chapters) there were "If-Modified-Since" and "Etag" fields in these headers. Aha! this most be what that sentence was hinting at.. time.. "thousand years" etc.

So I jumped into curl to spoof the "If-Modified-Since" field to generate a response from the server. Sure enough, changing the date of the field to "Sun, 25 oct 2015 12:59:55 GMT" produced a 304 Not modified response, However nothing else, no extra field in the header or anything to indicate I had solved the chapter. I must have been missing something.

So I decided to read up more on properties of the "If-Modified-Since" and "Etag" fields. I began by reading rfc2616 section 14 "Header Field Definitions" for any further information. Although very illuminating, I wasn't any closer to solving the chapter. I did some more searching, read some more papers, I spent the best part of 2 hours trying to prise a hint of a way of exploiting this specific feature of HTTP headers, I came out empty handed.

So out of frustration, I thought I would see what happened if I spoofed a header where the "If-Modified-Since" field was in date; that is to say, a fresh copy of the page would be sent as it had been modified since the date I had fabricated in the request header. Sure enough, I got the HTML back, wait.. what does that say?!..

"<meta http-equiv="hint" content="Think, but don't act like a robot."/>"

Why had I not noticed this earlier?! It cant be! seriously? not robots.txt.. it cant be that straight forward?!

Yes it was that straight forward...
The moral of the story, Don't get carried away. I should have simply read the HTML first, like I had in the previous chapters. But what a valuable lesson to learn! Also, I now know quite allot about ETags and If-Modified-Since header fields!

On to chapter 4, a little bit wiser...